https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/issue/feed Dialog 2022-12-29T13:56:28+00:00 Abas Al-Jauhari, M.Si. admin@jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id Open Journal Systems <p>Diterbitkan oleh<br> <strong>BADAN LITBANG DAN DIKLAT KEMENTERIAN AGAMA RI.</strong><br> ALAMAT REDAKSI DAN&nbsp; TATA USAHA:<br> Sekretariat Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama RI<br> Jl. M.H. Thamrin No. 6, Jakarta Pusat – Telp./Fax. (021) 3920688 – 3920662<br> <em>e-mail </em>:<a href="mailto:sisinfobalitbangdiklat@kemenag.go.id">sisinfobalitbangdiklat@kemenag.go.id</a></p> https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/695 Kata Pengantar 2022-12-29T13:03:13+00:00 Abas Al-Jauhari abasaljauhari@gmail.com 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/655 Countering Social Stigma as the Basis of Interfaith Movement: A Case Study of Cadar Garis Lucu 2022-09-13T16:01:11+00:00 Andi Alfian andialfianx@gmail.com Wahyuddin Halim wahyuddinh@hotmail.com <p><em>One of the weaknesses of interfaith dialogue in Indonesia is the lack of participation and space for women’s voices. Almost all spaces for interfaith dialogue are dominated by men, even though women have an important role in interfaith dialogue. Therefore, we should involve more women than men, not only because women are the most affected when religious conflicts occur but previous studies have also shown that women are most effective in peacebuilding negotiation based on non-violent strategies. This study investigates an interfaith movement, Cadar Garis Lucu, which veiled/niqab women initiated to counter the stigma that veiled/niqab women are radical-extremist and anti-other religions. Besides being active in promoting peace and interfaith dialogue, Cadar Garis Lucu also promotes the discourse of gender equality. By employing qualitative research and in-depth interview method as the primary data collection technique, this study found that Cadar Garis Lucu is an interfaith movement that aims to counter society’s negative stigma towards women – both veiled/niqab women and women in general – and seeks to bring women to participate in interfaith dialogue. Furthermore, this study argues that there is no better way to peacebuilding than to give space for women in interfaith dialogue.</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/640 Konstruksi Prinsip Kebebasan Beragama dan Diskursusnya di Indonesia dalam Perspektif Sejarah Walter Benjamin 2022-09-13T15:56:00+00:00 Antonio Camnahas tonio.chs41@gmail.com Servinus Haryanto Nahak venahak@gmail.com Adison Adrianus Sihombing sonadi2017@gmail.com <p>Kebebasan beragama merupakan satu isu sentral dewasa ini. Terminologi ini secara konseptual jelas, namun secara faktual, masih jauh dari harapan. Penulis memakai konsep sejarah Walter Benjamin sebagai pisau analisis. Refleksi filosofis Benjamin menandaskan pentingnya kemampuan belajar dari sejarah kelam masa lalu sebagai cahaya yang menuntun para pelaku sejarah masa kini. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan momentum-momentum historis perkembangan prinsip kebebasan beragama. Pengalaman historis umat Kristen berkaitan dengan kebebasan beragama akan menjadi sumbangan unik tulisan ini. Tujuan lain adalah untuk meneliti proses penerimaan konsep ini menjadi salah satu Hak Asasi Manusia dan diskursus tentangnya di Indonesia. Studi ini merupakan penelitian kepustakaan dengan desain metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa baik dokumen Deklarasi Universal Hak Asasi Manusia maupun Undang-undang Dasar 1945 yang menjamin kebebasan beragama dan berkeyakinan merupakan buah dari refleksi kritis terhadap konteks sejarah kelam masa silam. Sayangnya, beberapa aturan hukum di Indonesia masih terkesan melanggengkan intoleransi. Hal ini terjadi sebagai dampak dari praktik indoktrinasi yang kurang sehat. Semestinya kerukunan-toleransi bukan sesuatu yang dipaksakan oleh negara melainkan diupayakan bersama di antara para penganut berbagai agama, dalam satu kerja sama yang positif dengan negara.</p> <p><strong>Kata-kata Kunci: </strong>Eropa, Indonesia, kebebasan beragama, Kristen, Pancasila</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Religious freedom is a central issue today. The idea is much clearer conceptually, but its implementation is still far from expectations. The author adopts the historical concept of Walter Benjamin as an analytical tool. Benjamin's philosophical reflection emphasizes the importance of learning from the history of the past as a light that guides the perpetrators of today's history. This paper aims at describing the historical momentum of the principle of religious freedom, and examining the process of acceptation of this concept as one of Human Rights and its discourse in Indonesia. The historical experience of Christians in relation to religious freedom will be a unique contribution to this paper. This study is a library research with a qualitative method design. The results of this study indicate that both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1945 Constitution which guarantee religious freedom are the fruit of critical reflection on the historical context of the past. Unfortunately, several laws in Indonesia still seem to perpetuate intolerance. This happens as a result of unhealthy indoctrination practices. Harmony-tolerance should not be imposed by the state, but should be pursued jointly among adherents of various religions, in a positive partnership with the state.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Christians, Europe, Indonesia, Pancasila, religious freedom</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/642 Religious Moderation: The Concepts and Implementation of Local Traditions in Karimunjawa 2022-09-13T11:55:59+00:00 Rohmatul Faizah rohmatulfaizah.ih@upnjatim.ac.id Jihan Avie Yusrina jihanavie@ivet.ac.id Ahmad Baedowi abaedowi40@gmail.com <p><em>This research is encouraged by the emergence of social friction due to different perspectives on religious issues in Indonesia. Some people clash religion with cultural rituals such as sedekah laut. At the same time, the others reject leaders from different religions and even desire to change the ideology into a caliphate system. Therefore, it is necessary to have a moderate attitude towards religion to create a peaceful and harmonious life. This condition can be found in Karimunjawa, where various ethnicities and religions live together but integrate to form a harmony. Thus, this research reveals the concept of religious moderation in Karimunjawa and how it is implemented through local traditions. The research problem was addressed through qualitative research using a case study approach. The results show that, although most Karimunjawa people do not possess a well-established theoretical understanding of the religious moderation concept, the practice of such concept can be observed in their everyday life. The implementation of moderation values ​​is carried out from one generation to another through acculturation of local wisdom ​​and religious values, such as in the barikan kubro, mudunke kapal, kumpulan, and sambatan. So far, there have been no obstacles in implementing religious moderation because it has become part of the tradition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> religious moderation, local tradition, Karimunjawa </em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/663 Implikasi Asas Personalitas Keislaman Terhadap Penyelesaian Sengketa Antara Muslim dan Non-Muslim di Pengadilan Agama 2022-09-13T15:06:19+00:00 Cindera Permata cindera.permata7@gmail.com Zezen Zainul Ali zezen.uje@gmail.com <p> Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui implikasi asas personalitas keislaman dalam memberikan peluang kepada orang non-Muslim untuk beracara di Pengadilan Agama apabila terjadi sengketa antara Muslim dan non-Muslim. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam menganalisis permasalahan ini adalah menggunakan metode pendekatan yuridis normatif. Pendekatan yuridis digunakan untuk mengkaji pasal perundang-undangan yang mengatur tentang Pengadilan Agama baik dalam UU Peradilan Agama dengan segala perubahannya, KHI, Peraturan-Peraturan Mahkamah Agung, dan juga Yurisprudensi. Selanjutnya, pendekatan normatif digunakan untuk mengungkap asas hukum yakni personalitas keislaman dalam lingkungan Pengadilan Agama guna mengetahui implikasinya dalam membuka peluang bagi non-Muslim beracara di Pengadilan Agama apabila terjadi sengketa antara Muslim dan non-Muslim. Hasil yang didapat dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa asas personalitas keislaman dalam lingkungan Peradilan Agama berperan dalam memberikan peluang terhadap non-Muslim untuk dapat beracara di Pengadilan Agama terkait sengketa perceraian, waris, dan ekonomi syariah.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci: </strong>UU Peradilan Agama, Muslim, non-Muslim, personalitas keislaman, sengketa lintas agama</p> <p> </p> <p><em>This paper aims to determine the implications of the principle of Islamic personality in providing opportunities for non-Muslims to proceed in the Religious Courts in the event of a dispute between Muslims and non-Muslims. The approach used in analyzing this problem is using the historical-juridical approach. The historical approach explains the background of the establishment of the Religious Courts, while the juridical approach is used to examine the articles governing the absolute authority of the Religious Courts, the principles of Islamic personality, both in the Law on Religious Courts with all their amendments, KHI, Supreme Court Regulations, and Jurisprudence. The results obtained from this study are historical, the Religious Courts existed long before the Law on Religious Courts was formed because of the role of Islamic kingdoms before the Dutch colonized. While juridically, the Islamic Personality Principle in the Religious Courts environment provides opportunities for non-Muslims to hold proceedings in the Religious Courts regarding divorce, inheritance, and sharia economic disputes.</em></p> <p><em><strong> </strong><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Religious Courts, Muslims, non-Muslims, Islamic -ersonality, interfaith disputes</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/652 The Concept of Love in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism for the Postmodern Indonesian Religious Communities 2022-09-13T15:29:57+00:00 Anggi Maringan Hasiholan 20121016@sttbi.ac.id Aldi Abdillah abdillah.aldi@gmail.com <p><em>The pattern of thinking relativism and pluralism in the postmodern era has always been a problem in religious life. The problem is due to the openness of relations between religions. This thinking style will be good if it accommodates a sense of brotherhood and mutual understanding between religious communities. On the other hand, it will be harmful if it is used to bring down other religions. This study aims to build a constructive model of comparative theology in a pluralistic society in Indonesia. The research method used in this paper is comparative theology by comparing the concept of Habluminallah-Habluminannas, with a similar idea in Christianity, which is also rooted in Judaism. The results showed that the idea of Habluminallah-Habluminannas is a unifying difference from the three Abrahamic religious concepts without eliminating the religiosity of each religion. This study concludes that Habluminallah-Habluminannas is the shade of the three Samawi religions to strengthen harmony and brotherhood.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>: </strong><em>habluminallah-habluminannas, comparative theology, inter-religious dialogue, postmodern</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/602 Kontribusi Organisasi Transnasional Seventh-day Adventist Memperkuat Afirmasi Toleransi Gereja Masehi Advent Hari Ketujuh Surakarta 2022-09-13T08:58:40+00:00 Hasna Wijayati hasna.wijayati@unisri.ac.id Christy Damayanti christydamayanti@unisri.ac.id <p>Kota Surakarta merupakan wilayah plural bagi ragam penganut agama dan kepercayaan. Ada potensi pergesekan antar pemeluk agama, dan bagi kaum minoritas seperti kelompok Gereja Masehi Advent Hari Ketujuh (GMAHK) kondisi ini adalah tantangan. GMAHK merupakan bagian organisasi transnasional berbasis agama, Seventh-day Adventist (SDA). Organisasi transnasional bagi suatu negara berpotensi mempengaruhi pola perilaku para pengikutnya dengan nilai global yang dibawanya. Dibutuhkan strategi agar dapat menyesuaikan nilai-nilai lokal dengan global, sehingga dapat menjaga eksistensinya meski sebagai kelompok minoritas. Penelitian ini menganalisis bagaimana kontribusi organisasi transnasional Seventh-day Adventist memperkuat afirmasi toleransi GMAHK Kota Surakarta. Metode penelitian adalah kualitatif menggunakan studi kasus intrinsik. Pengumpulan data melalui wawancara mendalam, FGD, observasi dan studi dokumen. Analisis dilakukan dengan pendekatan <em>faith-based development organizations</em>, guna melihat peran dan relasi organisasi transnasional lintas negara berbasis agama. Peneliti menemukan bahwa kontribusi SDA tampak dari esklusifitas identitas global dalam memperkuat afirmasi nilai toleransi GMAHK Surakarta tanpa mengabaikan identitas lokal. SDA membangun sistem terarah dengan mengadaptasikan nilai-nilai global organisasi dalam isu-isu lokal, membangun <em>guideline system</em> melalui jaringan komunikasi dan koordinasi terstruktur, menguatkan <em>self of belonging</em> dengan penguatan loyalitas dan fasilitasi berbagai aspek, penguatan peran perempuan melalui Bakti Wanita Advent, serta agenda <em>interfaith dialogue</em> dan kegiatan sosial lintas agama.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci: </strong>Seventh-day Adventist, identitas global, identitas lokal, Surakarta, afirmasi toleransi</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Surakarta is a plural area for various religions and beliefs. There is the possibility of conflict between religions, which poses a challenge for minorities such as the GMAHK, as part of Seventh-day Adventist, faith-based international organization. The arrival of transnational organizations influence the behavior of their followers with global value. A strategy is needed to adjust local values into global ones to maintain their existence as a minority group. This study analyzes how the contribution of the Seventh-day Adventist strengthens the affirmation of tolerance for the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Surakarta. The research method was qualitative using intrinsic case studies. Collecting data through in-depth interviews, FGD, observations and document studies. The analysis was using faith-based development organizations approach to see the roles and relations of transnational organizations across countries. The researcher found that exclusivity of global identity is strengthening affirmation of tolerance value of GMAHK Surakarta without neglecting local identity. They have directed system by adapting the organization's global values on local issues, building guideline system with structured communication and coordination network, strengthening self of belonging through loyalty and facilitation of various aspects, strengthening the role of women through Bakti Wanita Adventist, interfaith agenda, and general social activity.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>global identity, local identity, Seventh-day Adventist, tolerance affirmation</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/675 Islamic Religious Education, Parenting Styles and Their Influence on The Character of Generation Z 2022-09-13T16:28:33+00:00 Mirza Mahbub Wijaya mirzamahbub27@yahoo.com Duwi Miyanto duwi.miyanto@gmail.com Dwi Arni Siti Margiyanti margiyanti@gmail.com <p><em>This study focuses on the influence of Islamic religious education and parenting patterns on the characters of grade VII students at the Junior High School of Muhammadiyah 1,</em> Semarang<em>. This research was conducted because the author saw a decline in student characters. This research is a quantitative field with a Quantitative Positive approach. The step is to collect facts based on measurements of the symptoms that occurred in the previous respondent. This research was conducted at the Junior High School of Muhammadiyah 1 Semarang with three variables (X1, X2, and Y). Data sources were obtained through observation, documentation, and questionnaires with 120 respondents. Data analysis used in this reasearch was regression t and f tests (ANOVA). The analysis showed that the f (ANOVA) test was 1.399 with a significance value of 0.274. It means that there is a jointly significant contribution between the PAI variable and parenting patterns on students’ characters at the Junior High School of Muhammadiyah 1 Semarang. Thus, curriculum programs contain material oriented to human needs as servants of God to worship and social beings for society. It is necessary to improve the quality of teachers through coaching, starting from theory to the level of understanding and practice of action. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Islamic religious education, parenting, character</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/674 Pendidikan Alternatif dalam Pemberdayaan Perempuan: Kontribusi Komunitas Epistemik Payungi dalam Membangun Pengetahuan 2022-09-13T15:20:49+00:00 Dharma Setyawan dharmasetyawan405@gmail.com Dwi Nugroho dwinugroho2020@mail.ugm.ac.id Iqbal Baikhaqi iqbalhaqi744@gmail.com <p>Pengetahuan perempuan yang terbatas membuat mereka sering menjadi objek dalam ruang domestik maupun publik. Kondisi ini memaksa perempuan untuk tunduk terhadap kebijakan yang bias gender. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk melihat dan menganalisa bagaimana pendidikan alternatif dioperasikan di dalam aktivitas pemberdayaan perempuan Payungi dan seperti apa kontribusi komunitas. Pendidikan alternatif berdasarkan uraian dari Mills (Mills et al. 2016) dengan lingkungan belajar yang kondusif dengan fleksibel memungkinkan seseorang kembali pada rutinitas belajar. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan data-data observasi, interview dan studi dokumentasi. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa keberadaan komunitas epistemik Payungi berperan dalam tiga hal, <em>pertama, </em>menghadirkan pendidikan alternatif-transformatif dengan mengoptimalkan peran Pesantren Wirausaha. <em>Kedua, </em>merekonstruksi paradigma berpikir perempuan (ibu rumah tangga) melalui dialog intra-religious. <em>Ketiga, </em>membangun kolaborasi dengan beberapa tokoh agama dan akademisi. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa pendidikan alternatif melalui konsep pesantren wirausaha yang dijalankan secara transformatif dan mendasarkan pemahaman pada nilai-nilai agama dan ilmu pengetahuan selain mampu membangun pengetahuan, juga membangun kapabilitas dan akselerasi perempuan dalam merespon isu-isu global.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong><strong>: </strong>pemberdayaan perempuan, komunitas epistemik, pendidikan alternatif, <strong>a</strong>gama, sains</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Limited knowledge of women makes them often become objects in domestic and public area. This condition forces women to submit to policies biased gender. This article aims to look at and analyze how alternative education operates within Payungi’s women’s empowerment activities and what the community’s contribution. Alternative education based on the description from Mills </em>(Mills et al. 2016) <em>with a conducive and flexible learning environment allows one to return to study routine. This research is qualitative research using observational data, interviews and documentation studies. This research shows that the Payungi epistemic community existence plays role in three ways, first, presenting alternative-transformative education by optimizing the Pesantren Wirausaha role. Second, reconstructing womens’s thinking paradigm (housewives) through intra-religious dialogue. Third, building collaboration with several religious leaders and academics. This research concludes that alternative education through the Pesantren Wirausaha concept is run in transformative manner and based on religious values and science understanding, besides can build knowledge, also build capabilities, and accelerate women in responding to global issues. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>women empowerment, epistemic community, alternative education, </em><em>r</em><em>eligion, science</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/664 The Sustainability of Interreligious Dialogue in Indonesia under the Phenomenon of Intolerance by Islamic Populists 2022-09-13T15:37:45+00:00 Kurniawan Netanyahu kurniawanneta.ig@gmail.com Deri Susanto derisusanto83@gmail.com <p><em>From 2016 to 2019, mass protests were organized by the "Islamic Defense Action 212" in Jakarta. Protests carried out by Islamic populists and the widespread use of identity politics have sparked an escalating wave of intolerance that has led to fractures in inter-religious relations in Indonesia. The phenomenon of intolerance described above is one of the main cases that researchers will analyze by tracing its impact on the continuity of inter-religious dialogue in Indonesia. This research was conducted using a descriptive qualitative analysis approach. This research found that there is a threat to inter-religious dialogue, namely the impact of increased intolerance, which has contributed to increasing the attitude of exclusivity from several Muslim groups in Indonesia toward non-Muslim religious communities. If the Islamic populist actions that occurred in 2019 were repeated in the next few years, especially before the political year, it would undermine the order of peace among religious communities in Indonesia, and dialogue between religions would be difficult to implement.</em></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Islamic populists, identity politics, religious intolerance, harmony, interreligious dialogue</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog https://jurnaldialog.kemenag.go.id/index.php/dialog/article/view/673 Fragmentasi ke Konvergensi: Asatiz Selebriti dalam Bingkai Gerakan Dakwah Barisan Bangun Negeri 2022-09-13T16:24:13+00:00 Iqomah Richtig mainrandom1@gmail.com Ilham Maulana ilhammaulana1068@gmail.com <p>Lebih dari satu dekade terakhir, Islam Indonesia telah menyaksikan menjamurnya gerakan dakwah melalui media sosial. Sebagian besar gerakan dakwah tersebut didirikan oleh 'Ustaz Selebriti', sebuah istilah yang merujuk pada ustaz yang populer di media baru. Belakangan ini, beberapa di antara mereka menunjukkan kecenderungannya pada Aksi Bela Islam (ABI) yang identik dengan identitas politik. Hal itu mencoreng citra Islam di mata publik sekaligus membuat otoritas keagamaan menjadi terfragmentasi. Peristiwa ini mendorong para ustaz selebritis, yang memiliki jumlah jemaah yang besar, mendirikan gerakan dakwah dengan nama "Barisan Bangun Negeri" yang berfokus pada isu-isu sosial, lingkungan dan kemanusiaan serta dirancang untuk memulihkan citra Islam. BBN menjadi bentuk konvergensi atau pemusatan umat sebagai respon atas terpecahnya umat Islam sebelumnya. Urgensi yang dibawa dalam gerakan dakwah ini tentu saja identitas, tepatnya identitas keislaman. Ada kebutuhan bagi para ustaz selebriti untuk membela identitas Islam mereka. Tulisan ini berusaha mengkaji sejauh apa gerakan dakwah BBN berhasil menyatukan umat muslim. Melalui metode netnografi dan wawancara, kami berpendapat bahwa BBN berusaha menampilkan citra Islam sebagai ‘Islam Rahmatan lil Alamin’ melalui implementasi ide-ide syariah. Selain itu, BBN juga mengajak para pengikut ustaz selebritas dalam gerakan dakwah mereka untuk menyukseskan program-program tersebut.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci: </strong>fragmentasi, konvergensi, Barisan Bangun Negeri, dakwah bil hal, ustaz selebriti</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Over the last decade, Indonesia Islam has witnessed the mushrooming of da’wah movement through social media. Mostly, those da’wah movement are founded by ‘Celebrity Ustaz’, a term refers to ustaz who are popular within new media. Recently, a few of them have shown their tendencies to Aksi Bela Islam or ABI (Defending Islam Movement) which identically to politic identity. It was defaced image of Islam towards the public as well as fragmented the religious authority. This event was encouraged those celebrity ustaz to established a da'wah movement namely "Barisan Bangun Negeri" which focusing on social, environmental and humanitarian issues as well as designed to recover the image of Islam. BBN founded as a convergence media as result of ABI fragmentation. The main purpose of BBN is the celebrity preachers trying to defend their islamic identity in order to show the real Islam rahmah. </em><em>This paper seeks to examine at which extent BBN succeed to convergence ummahs. By mean of netnography and interview methods, we argue BBN attempts to perform the image of Islam as ‘Islam Rahmatan lil Alamin’ through implementing syariah ideas. In addition, BBN invited followers of celebrity ustaz of their da'wah movement to successful their programmes.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> fragmentation, convergence, Barisan Bangun Negeri, dakwah bil hal, ustaz celebrity</em></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dialog